Riglyne om ontkieming van saad met mikrobiese saadbehandelings te verbeter

How To Improve Seed Germination Sprouting Seedling Vigour The Rooting Phase And Plant Health With Microbial Seed Treatments

How To Improve Seed Germination With Microbial Seed Treatments

Photos by Andy Kollmann (instagram: andy.ko11)

Geskryf deur MA Young en R. Saunders. Foto deur Andy Kollmann ( instagram: andy.ko11 )

Mark Young BSc, voormalige dosent vir volhoubaarheid, permakultuurtegnikus, wat aan die hoof was van volhoubaarheidsnavorsing by die Boheemse Sentrum vir Volhoubare Ontwikkeling. As bestuurder van boerderyproduksie het Mnr Young een van die leiers in die Suid-Afrikaanse mikrobiese benadering in die landbou geword, ook vir die beheer van plae en siektes. Mnr. Young se botaniese biologiese kwalifikasies sluit nagraadse ervaring in die VSA in oor plantgroei, organiese, bakteriële en inheemse mikro-organismes.

Riglyne om ontkieming van saad met mikrobiese saadbehandelings te verbeter

Waarom behandel en/of week sade in ExploGrow?

Daar is gevind dat mikrobes in ExploGrow™ die ontkieming van saad, die ontkieming van krag, wortel- en wortellengte, algemene gesondheid en produksie van die plant verbeter. Merriman et al (1974), het getoon dat mikroörganismes saadontkieming bevorder en die opbrengs by baie gewassoorte verhoog. Spesifiek is aangetoon dat Bacillus subtilis die ontkieming en algehele groei van die mosterdfamilie en verskeie ander plantspesies aansienlik verbeter (Wu et al, 2016). [Verwysing: 1]

Onlangs het die kombinasie van groeibevorderende mikrobes die beste ontkieming van papawersade getoon (Hanapi et al, 2014). Ons het gesien dat sade deurdrenk in ExploGrow™ hoër ontkiemingstempo en sukses kan hê in vergelyking met kontrole, wat die potensiaal vir groter groei en opbrengste van baie gewasse verhoog. [Verwysings: 2 en 3]

[Verwysingsbesonderhede hieronder]

Saadbehandelingsmetodes om die ontkieming en lewenskrag van saad te verbeter:

1. In algemene landbou:

Kommersiële saadbehandelingsmasjiene is te koop.

Behandel die sade met 'n rugsakspuit en 'draai' met grawe. As die handleiding gebruik word, is dit belangrik dat dit op 'n skoon en droë oppervlak gedoen word.

Verdun 1 liter ExploGrow™ in 30 liter water. Dit is genoeg om 1 ton saad te behandel. Sodra die saad behandel is, moet dit toegelaat word om droog te word voordat dit in die saaier geplaas word en in die veld gesaai word. Dit sal die beste bereik word as die saad versprei word.

As die behandeling van die saad om een of ander rede nie moontlik of onwenslik is nie, is 'n ander opsie om ExploGrow™ toe te dien via die besproeiingstelsel of met 'n boombespuiting kort na plant en natgemaak word om kontak met die saad te verseker. Dien laatmiddag toe om deeglike opname te verseker.

2. How to improve sprouting with microbial seed treatments

  • sprouting seeds are colonized by beneficial bacteria from the beginning
  • defend sprouting seeds from early onset of pathogens
  • pathogenic resistance to the leaves

Research from the American society for microbiology suggests that plants may pre-inoculate seeds with beneficial microbes in order to guarantee sprouting seeds are colonized by beneficial bacteria from the beginning of the plant’s life cycle. Specifically, Bacillus sp. had the potential to defend sprouting seeds from early onset of pathogens (Science Daily, 2014). Additionally, it has been shown that some beneficial Pseudomonas microbes have systemic functions so they may be applied to the roots and offer pathogenic resistance to the leaves of the plant (Liu et al, 1995).

[References: 4, 11]

ExploGrow™ contains beneficial microbes with systemic functions that have the ability to protect multiple areas of the plant after being applied to the roots or seed.

3. How to improve seedling health, vigour and shoot length with microbial seed treatments

  • healthier seedlings
  • reduce the effects of transplant shock
  • more resistance to root rot
  • reducing the need for hazardous chemicals

Seedlings are nurtured in an environment different from that of it’s final destination. Generally seedlings are grown in a sheltered environment offering extra protection from biotic and abiotic stresses like weather, drought and pests etc. When seedlings are removed from their sheltered environment and transplanted in a field or semi protected structure they are subjected to some sort of stress. This physiological response to stress is described as transplant shock.

Close et al (2005) suggests that it may be possible to reduce the effects of transplant shock through multiple options. Boby and Bagyaraj (2002) show that seedlings treated with Glomus mosseae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride in the nursery resulted in healthier seedlings that better handled transplant shock and furthermore displayed more resistance to root rot, reducing the need for hazardous chemicals.

[References: 5, 6]

ExploGrow™ contains microbes that can directly and indirectly help plants ability to handle transplant shock. When transplanting seedlings, the roots can be drenched in a mix of ExploGrow™ in order to increase the number of beneficial bacteria in and around the rhizosphere. These microbes can improve the health of the plants and the soil environment reducing any physiological side effects of transplant shock improving potential growth and yield.

4. How to improve the rooting phase with microbial seed treatments

  • positively influence the structure and development of roots
  • Nitrogen fixers can directly improve nutrient uptake of the roots
  • indirectly influence growth by protecting the plant from harmful pathogens

There are more microorganisms surrounding the roots of plants than there is soil around the roots of plants (Hiltner, 1904). It has been shown that the soil contains an incredible amount of biodiversity from small invertebrates to fungi and bacteria that can’t be seen with the naked eye (Fierer and Jackson, 2006). There are bacteria and fungi can harm the plant and there are bacteria and fungi that are classified as beneficial microbes because of their positive effect and interaction with plants (Glick, 2015).

Science has observed, that beneficial microbes can positively influence the structure and development of roots furthermore significantly improving shoot growth. Nitrogen fixers can directly improve nutrient uptake of the roots and biocontrol agents can indirectly influence growth by protecting the plant from harmful pathogens (Verbon and Lieberman, 2016). ExploGrow™ contains nitrogen fixing microbes (Azotobacter and Bacillus spp.) that can improve nutrient uptake and biocontrol agents (Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Trichoderma spp.) that can protect the plant from harmful pathogens including root rot.

[References: 7, 8, 10, 14 ]

ExploGrow™ should be applied in the early stages of crop cycle to significantly improve root and shoot growth in order to achieve greater yields.

5. How to improve plant health with microbial seed treatments

  • stress tolerance
  • improved resistance to pathogens
  • increased nutrient availability
  • improved resistance to root rot
  • increased ability to handle transplant shock
  • directly or indirectly influence the uptake of nutrients into plants
  • supporting the need to reduce fertilizers

Beneficial microbes have the ability to improve plant health through multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms include increased stress tolerance, improved resistance to pathogens and increased nutrient availability (Morrissey et al, 2004).

Seedlings treated with beneficial microbes Glomus, Pseudomonas and Trichoderma showed improved resistance to root rot and increased ability to handle transplant shock (Boby and Bagyaraj, 2002).

Harman (2000), indicates that Trichoderma sp. can directly or indirectly influence the uptake of nutrients into plants further supporting the need to reduce fertilizers. Bacillus and Azotobacter spp. are known as nitrogen fixers that can improve the availability and uptake of nitrogen in plants (Wahyudi, et al, 2011).

[References: 6, 9, 13, 15]

ExploGrow™ contains microbes which are responsible for performing several functions in the soil having the ability to directly and indirectly influence plant health improving growth and yield.

ExploGrow™ should be applied as early as possible to take full advantage of the benefits the beneficial microbes hold.

6. Seed treatment methods to improve seed germination and vitality:

1. In general Agriculture:

Commercial seed treatment machines are available for purchase.

Alternatively, manually treat the seed(s) with a knapsack sprayer and “turn” using spades. If the manual method is used, it is important that the operation is done on a clean and dry surface.

Dilute 1 liter of ExploGrow™ in 30 liters of water. This is enough to treat 1 ton of seed. Once seed is treated it should be allowed to dry before being placed in the seeder and sowed in the field. This will be best achieved if the seed is spread out.

If the treatment of the seed is not possible or not desirable for any reason, another option is to apply ExploGrow™ through the irrigation system or via a boom spray shortly after planting and watered in to ensure contact with the seed. Apply late afternoon to ensure thorough absorption.

2. Saadbehandelings van sade met 'n baie hoë waarde:

Marijuana Seed Treatment With Organic Bio Fertilizer Versus The Best Cannabis Nutrients

Photo credits: PapaJ and Janomi

(A) Un-diluted ExploGrow™ seed soak treatment:

How to soak your high value seeds using un-diluted ExploGrow™:

  1. Bring the high value individual seed(s) to room temperature.
  2. Each seed is soaked in 1 ml of un-diluted ExploGrow™ (i.e. 10 seeds are soaked in 10 ml, etc.)
  3. The soak should last for maximum 20-30 minutes.
  4. Then move the seed(s), together with any remaining ExploGrow™ seed soak, from the seed soak to a container of dechlorinated water for 12 hours at 22°C - 26°C.

The quantity of dechlorinated water must dilute the seed soak 100 times, i.e. one seed soaked in 1 ml un-diluted ExploGrow™ is mixed into 100 ml dechlorinated water; 10 soaked seeds are mixed into 1,000 ml etc.

5. To further assist the germination process, then apply this wet paper towel seed germination method:

After the 12 hours in the container of dechlorinated water as described in (4) above, take the water solution with the seeds to thoroughly wet a paper towel (wet, but not dripping wet), placed on a clean plate.

Fold and close the paper and keep the temperature between 22°C - 26°C. Keep like this until germination can be observed. Plant in soil.

(B) How to further assist high value plant seed germination using diluted ExploGrow™:

  1. There are several methods used to assist germination. One small drop (1 ml per seed) of diluted ExploGrow™ (at dilution 1 ml ExploGrow™ to 100 ml dechlorinated water) would be highly recommended during this stage.

Growing medium or soil seed germination method:

  1. Mix 1/3 compost together with 2/3 quality potting soil.
  2. After soaking the seeds, add the seeds on the top, then cover with a light layer of soil.
  3. Use the ExploGrow™ seed soak to wet the soil/growing medium.
  4. Water occasionally when required.
  5. Use a transparent lid or cup to cover the soil to create a small greenhouse effect.

Fotokrediete: PapaJ en Janomi

(A) Onverdunde ExploGrow™ saadbehandeling:

Hoe u u saad met 'n hoë waarde deur onverdunde ExploGrow™ week:

  1. Bring die hoë waarde individuele saad (e) na kamertemperatuur.
  2. Elke saad word in 1 ml onverdunde ExploGrow™ geweek (maw 10 sade word in 10 ml geweek, ens.)
  3. Die week moet maksimum 20-30 minute duur.
  4. Beweeg dan die saad(e), tesame met die oorblywende ExploGrow™ na 'n houer met gefilterde water vir 12 ure by 22°C - 26°C.

Die hoeveelheid ontwaterde water moet die saad 100 keer verdun, dws een saad wat in 1 ml geweek is, ExploGrow™ word gemeng in 100 ml gedloorineerde water; 10 geweekte sade word in 1.000 ml gemeng ens.

5. Om die ontkiemingsproses verder te help, pas dan hierdie ontkiemingsmetode op papierhanddoek toe:

Neem die wateroplossing met die sade na die 12 uur in die houer met ontwaterde water soos beskryf in (4) hierbo om die papierhanddoek deeglik nat te maak (nat, maar nie nat nie) op 'n skoon bord.

Vou en maak die papier toe en hou die temperatuur tussen 22°C - 26°C. Hou so aan totdat die ontkieming waargeneem kan word. Plant in die grond.

(B) Hoe u die ontkieming van hoë waarde van saad met behulp van verdunde ExploGrow™ verder kan help:

Daar is verskillende metodes wat gebruik word om ontkieming te bevorder. Een klein druppel (1 ml per saad) verdunde ExploGrow™ (by verdunning 1 ml ExploGrow™ tot 100 ml ontwaterde water) sal sterk aanbeveel word gedurende hierdie stadium.

Groei medium of grond saad ontkieming metode:

  1. Meng 1/3 kompos met potgrond van 2/3 gehalte.
  2. Nadat die sade geweek is, voeg die sade bo-op by en bedek dit dan met 'n ligte laag grond.
  3. Gebruik die ExploGrow™ saad week om die grond / groeiende medium nat te maak.
  4. Water af en toe indien nodig.
  5. Gebruik 'n deursigtige deksel of 'n koppie om die grond te bedek om 'n klein kweekhuiseffek te vorm.

References:

1. Hanapi, S.Z., Supari, N., Alam, S,A., Javed, M,A., Jabir Mohd Din, A,R., Tin, L,C., Rashid, S,N,A,A., Annuar, N,A,S., Sarmid, M,R. (2014). Microbial effects on seed germination in Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.). Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network. 37:42-51.

2. Merriman, P.R., Price, R.D., Kollmorgen, J.F. (1974). Effect of seed inoculation with Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces griseus on the growth of cereals and carrots Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 25(2):219-226.

3. Wu, Y.N., Feng, Y.L., Paré, P.W., Chen, Y.L., Xu, R., Wu , S., Wang, S.M., Zhao, Q., Li, H.R., Wang, Y.Q., Zhang, J.L. (2016). Beneficial soil microbe promotes seed germination, plant growth and photosynthesis in herbal crop Codonopsis pilosula. Crop and Pasture Science. 67(1):91-98.


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